Published on July 22nd, 2017 | by Emre Kagitci
How Cubism Changed During The 20th Century?
Art history changed lot during the start of the 20th century. First World War affected this transition and changed up the process as many artist tried to express their feelings in a different way during the war times. Early cubism can be found in the works of Paul Cezanne and his simplified view of nature in his art. Cezanne influenced both Picasso and Braque with his art and open way for cubism to evolve.
Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon work of art opened a new page in cubism and it becomes a cornerstone for the first revolution in 20th-century art. Painting produced between 1906-07 said to be the first signings of the “Cubist thought”. Picasso was definitely impressed and influenced by Paul Cezanne’s Female Bathers in From of a Tent, with the composure of the subject matter and the perspective used in the artwork. He then used this approach in Les Demoiselles d’Avignon as he created a different perspective by using three-dimensional female nudes and the two-dimensional space including ornaments in the room.
In addition to this, when Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) introduced Picasso to Georges Braque who already overwhelmed by the Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, in 1907, cubism completed its frontrunners. Early friendship influenced Braque to produce the picture Large Nude in 1908. While frontrunners took the lead in the cubism history in the year 1910, cubist’s artists divided into two groups named Gallery cubists (Braque and Picasso) opposed to Salon cubists (Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger). This separation was triggered when Picasso rejected to exhibit in salons for his artworks and Braque followed his decision afterwards, too.
Early era of cubism (1906/1907-09) discredited also by these two painters which changed the primary subject in the artworks as it no longer imitates the nature but they created their own reality. It continued analytical cubism formed by Picasso and Braque. Their motifs are not only portrayed from various perspectives simultaneously but are also fragmented into smaller forms, which let them become set pieces of a physical whole.
However with the start of the First World War, situation of the artists changed lot. Many artists in that era were still young and they mostly conscripted to military service. Communication between them disrupted and cubism as an independent artistic style was lost in the confusion of the First World War.